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Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England.

Berserk Redux - Chapter 2: The Hundred Year War

He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland, though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign. After the disastrous reign of Edward II, which saw military losses and the Great Famine, Edward III reigned from —, restoring royal authority and transforming the Kingdom of England into the most efficient military power in Europe.

His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death. After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland, he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied.

These years saw a great deal of battle on the continent, most of it over disputes as to which family line should rightfully be upon the throne of France.

The root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic, economic, and social crises of 14th-century Europe. The outbreak of war was motivated by a gradual rise in tension between the kings of France and England about Guyenne, Flanders, and Scotland. The dynastic question, which arose due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext. The dispute over Guyenne is even more important than the dynastic question in explaining the outbreak of the war.

In practical terms, a judgment in Guyenne might be subject to an appeal to the French royal court. The king of France had the power to revoke all legal decisions made by the king of England in Aquitaine, which was unacceptable to the English. Therefore, sovereignty over Guyenne was a latent conflict between the two monarchies for several generations.

Caroline : 1369–1389

The war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. Although primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism. By its end, feudal armies had been largely replaced by professional troops, and aristocratic dominance had yielded to a democratization of the manpower and weapons of armies. The wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated.

The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire, composed largely of commoners and thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, English political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture. The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, became a factor leading to the civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses — In France, civil wars, deadly epidemics, famines, and bandit free-companies of mercenaries reduced the population drastically.

Deprived of its continental possessions, England was left with the sense of being an island nation, which profoundly affected its outlook and development for more than years. Historians commonly divide the war into three phases separated by truces: 1 the Edwardian Era War — ; 2 the Caroline War — ; and 3 the Lancastrian War — , which saw the slow decline of English fortunes after the appearance of Joan of Arc in It was a series of punctuated, separate conflicts waged between the kingdoms of England and France and their various allies for control of the French throne.

He refused, however, to acknowledge his fealty to Philip, who responded by confiscating the duchy of Aquitaine in ; this precipitated war, and soon, in , Edward declared himself king of France. Hostilities were paused in the mids for the deprivations of the Black Death. Then war continued, and the English were victorious at the Battle of Poitiers , where the French king, John II, was captured and held for ransom. The Truce of Bordeaux was signed in and was followed by two treaties in London in and After the treaties of London failed, Edward launched the Rheims campaign.

This peace lasted nine years, until a second phase of hostilities known as the Caroline War began. This truce was extended many times until the war was resumed in It followed a long period of peace from , at end of the Caroline War. This phase was named after the House of Lancaster, the ruling house of the Kingdom of England, to which Henry V belonged.

England now controlled both the northeastern-most region of France, directly across the English channel, and also Gascony a. Aquitaine , in the southwestern-most corner. The Black Prince was based in Gascony, and in led a raiding party into the Loire valley in central France. The Black Prince tried to retreat back into English territory, but was cornered at Poitiers. Negotiations to avoid battle were of no avail, and the English, who were greatly out-numbered prepared for battle.

Just as at Cressy, the smaller English troop, armed only with long-bows, routed the entire French army and took the king prisoner.

Hundred Years War

The Black Prince won great renown for this battle, not only for his military exploits but also for the high degree of chivalry he displayed before, during, and after the battle. Several years later France and England negotiated a peace treaty, but they were never able to resolve the question of a ransom for the king, and John II died a captive in England. Although France and England were officially at peace with each other for ten years after the Battle of Poitiers , there was still much fighting in the region.

France and England took opposite sides of two ongoing wars of succession going on at the time. A king in Castile Pedro the Cruel had been deposed and requested help from the Black Prince to regain his throne, and at nearly the same time, the Blois and Montfort families were fighting it out for control of the Duchy of Brittany. Two of the major battles fought during the 's, first the Battle of Auray in the north, and then the Battle of Navarette in the South, had to do with these wars of succession.

Hundred Years’ War - HISTORY

They are important in terms of the Hundred Years war for two reasons; first because the French and English took opposites sides during them, and also because Bertrand du Guesclin, the central character of the Caroline phase of the Hundred Years War, emerged as a leader during them. Although his side lost both of these important battles, he learned enough about English tactics to lead the French army with reasonable success against the English, once France and England again declared open war.

What du Guesclin had learned, by fighting and losing pitched battles with the English, was to avoid direct confrontation with the English and to regain territory by successfully reclaiming important towns by siege and negotiation rather than large scale battles. By this technique he was able to regain much lost territory over a period of years without suffering any severe reverses. He was greatly aided in this campaign by the untimely death of the Black Prince, and Edward III, leaving Richard II, a boy of only 9 on the throne, and a high degree of political turmoil in England and its realms.

Political turmoil in both England and France was the primary reason for the long peace between and Henry IV intended to re-open the war with France to reclaim some of England's lost territory, but never got around to it, and the project was left for his son Henry V.

Meanwhile in France, King Charles VI had become incapacitated, and a rift was developing between the Duke of Burgundy, and Louis, the brother of the king, for control of the French throne. This rift developed into a civil war between the Burgundians in the north, and the Armagnacs supporters of Louis, and later, Charles VII in the south; a conflict which was a major factor in the next phase of the Hundred Years War. In the ongoing dispute within France between the Armagnacs and Burgundians, both sides had sought to make an alliance with the English, but Henry V's terms were far too hard for any self-respecting Frenchman to accept.

The army that met him at Agincourt was Armagnac, and the defeat terrifically weakened their cause.

Henry continued to win major victories in northern France, married the daughter of the incapacitated King of France, and negotiated a treaty whereby any son of his, born to the French princess, would inherit the throne of France. In Henry V died, and soon after so did the King of France. The Burgundians, now allied with England, supported the claim of Henry VI, the infant son of Henry V, and controlled most of Northern France, including Paris, but the Armagnacs refused to recognize the English claim and still controlled territory in Southern France.

In siege was laid to their capital at Orleans, and the Armagnac cause was hanging by a thread. It was at this point that Joan of Arc, a seventeen year old girl with no military experience, arrived suddenly on the scene and dramatically changed the course of events. She first inspired the disorganized and dispirited French troops to attack the English surrounding Orleans and lift the siege. After several more minor victories, the French, again led by Joan of Arc, won a terrific Battle at Patay, which broke the English line, and soon after, the Dauphin was crowned at Rheims.

Shortly after, Joan was captured by the Burgundians, tried, and executed as a witch. In spite of their losses, the English were still optimistic about their prospects in France, when in , the Burgundians deserted the English and allied themselves instead with Charles VII, the hereditary king of France. This dramatically changed the balance of power in the area, since England had depended on their Burgundian allies to hold territory that they had conquered.

Although in terms of military tactics, weapons, and organization, England was clearly superior, France was too large and heavily populated to be occupied permanently unless England was allied with local interests. It had been the civil war within France that had created the opportunity for great English gains, and when the rift was healed, and France stood united against England, it was bound to prevail.

Caroline : 1369–1389

It took many years to drive England all the way out of France, and the city of Calais didn't fall until the 16th century. But France had learned her lesson well, and the feeling of French nationalism was greatly enhanced by French victories over the English in the final years of the Hundred Years War. Practically the whole of the French fleet was captured or destroyed, and Quieret was killed. The French lost 25, men, the English 4, The battle is notable as being the first in which the English army was mainly composed of infantry, and as proving the powerlessness of mounted men against the English archers.

The French losses were 11 princes, 1, knights, and 30, of lesser ranks, a total exceeding the whole English force. The citizens made a gallant defense, holding out for nearly a year, but at last were forced to surrender August 4, In the course of the siege, six burgesses offered themselves to the king as ransom for their fellow citizens; but their lives were spared on the intercession of Queen Philippa. The defeat of Cressy then forced the Duke of Normandy to lead his army northward, and he was compelled to raise the siege. The French fleet attempted to relieve the town, but was defeated and driven off with heavy loss by the English fleet.

The English occupied a strong position behind lanes and vineyards, in which their archers were posted. The French cavalry, charging up the lanes, were thrown into confusion by the bowmen, and were then taken in flank by the English knights and men-at-arms, who completely routed them, with a loss of 8, killed, and numerous prisoners, including the King, The English losses were very small. The Flemings were defeated with a loss of 1, men. Invaded France, and won the Battles of Crecy and Calias. Victor at the Battle of Poitiers. Haaren Edward III.

Hundred Years' War

Chandos' position, however, was very strong, and the French were unable to make any impression upon it. Meanwhile they were thrown into utter confusion by an attack on their flank, and were ultimately routed, with heavy loss, Charles of Blois being among the slain. Bertrand du Guesclin was captured. Du Guesclin, who was executing a strategic retreat, was attacked by the English, who were surrounded and overpowered, Joel falling.

De Grailli came to their aid, but was also overwhelmed and made prisoner, and the Navarrese, deprived of their leaders, laid down their arms.